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Wednesday, July 12
 

14:00

3113 Towards a Generative Formulation of Mechanistic Systems
Every discipline of engineering has an extensive body of knowledge relating to the design and analysis of its systems. Systems engineering community (INCOSE) has worked through the commonalities across these engineering disciplines, and created SEBOK, that applies to the design of any kind of system, particularly mechanistic systems across different engineering domains. While there is widespread agreement on the concepts, as articulated in SEBOK, there is still some sense that the field is empirical, and it would be desirable to create formal foundations. For example, it is widely accepted that design synthesis needs to be complemented by analysis and verification – but there is no theoretical basis for explaining why it is needed. The broad agenda for Systems scientists has been to build these foundations and provide the theoretical basis for the different concepts that are found useful by system engineers.

In this paper, an experiment to explore and extend the explanatory power of the commonly accepted concepts in systems engineering is discussed. It formulates an abstraction of a “block” based on existing systems engineering concepts. This abstract concept, “block”, is described in terms of elements such as inputs, outputs, state, characteristics, outcomes and relationships with the context. It is realized recursively as a network/hierarchy of blocks, giving rise to structures and processes that produce the outcomes. It is conjectured that this network/hierarchy of blocks can be generated through recursive application of three operations: decomposition, dependency closure and realization.

The value of the block concept is explored by applying it to explain several of the practices and phenomena in SEBOK, including the Vee model. It leads to a specific framing of the concept of domains, the nature of domain knowledge, and relationships between domains which is presented in this paper. It also provides an explanation of the need for analysis to complement synthesis, as well as subsequent verification. We believe that this conceptual approach holds promise in terms of creating a framework for reasoning about engineering systems. The current formulation is expressed and discussed in conceptual terms, but it could be formalized mathematically. The result would be an abstract mathematical construct that could enable abstract reasoning about systems phenomena and engineering practice, at least for mechanistic systems.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:00 - 14:30
2nd Floor, Room SR 125, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

14:00

3128 Pilot Case Study: How Two Nonprofit Education Foundations Use Social Media to Support Systemic Engagement
Easily available and widely used, social media tools look like a boon for small, nonprofit organizations that need systemic approaches for disseminating information and cultivating networks for donor and member engagement, especially those relying on a few paid staff and many good-hearted volunteers to do the work. This case study examines the experiences of two nonprofit organizations and the complexities, constraints, and contextual challenges that have made adopting social media practices more difficult and less effective than industry advisers, researchers, and examples suggest. Leaders of these two education foundations describe themselves as caught between the demands of tending key person-to-person relationships and the additional duties associated with cultivating interactive relational networks through social media. The experiences described in this instrumental case study align with themes found across trans-disciplinary research on social media and organizations. These themes are social media, organizational capacity, and the changing concept of engagement.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:00 - 14:30

14:00

3155 Systematic Thinking in Science Education
In the past, whether within kingdom, empire, colony, or republic, young Koreans had to remain focused on passing tests, even in the midst of the war or the collapse of schools and the emergence of private education in the Joseon Dynasty period (1392-1910). Because private tutoring has been a major factor in Korean education for 650 years now, it can be seen as a major influence on the weak development of an integrated education experience in Korea. However, integrated education strengthening basic science education, linking liberal arts and natural sciences, and developing skills in problem solving rather than rote memorization will be necessary for successful participation in the impending Fourth Industrial Revolution.

South Korea's science education is caught in a web of paradoxes. Basic science education is weak, but memorization education for the university entrance examination is the best in the world. Students display a low level of creative thinking compared to advanced countries, but their academic achievement is very high. Koreans have been content to remain in the mindset of their proverb, “‘It is the fastest thing to be late.” Yet college students do not seem content to wait, given their tendency to break away from their majors. Although educational policies and curricula are constantly in flux, why have these patterns emerged, and how can they be changed?

This study examines the relevance and goals of science education through the perspective of recent work in brain science. Specifically, we will examine the relationship between creativity and the biology of the brain, in particular the division between the left and right brains. Brain research focused on cognitive function differentiation has strongly indicated that cooperation between the left and right brains is essential for increasing the ability for creative thinking. Yet the focus on memorization in Korean education can result in relatively weak left brain development, which can shortchange left brain functions including abilities to learn and apply mathematics, language expression, logical reasoning, and rational thinking and criticism.

In summary, although both the left and right brains share roles in creative thinking, Korea's entrance examination does not fully utilize the brain’s differentiated cognitive functions. We need a balanced basic science education with the long-term goal of effective left and right brain development, not the short-term goal of admission to a good college.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:00 - 14:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

14:30

3107 Grounding Transformation in Articulation
The advent of digital transformation invading all societal and economic systems requires to re-consider the generative nature of socio-technical system design. Transformation needs to be studied, in particular how links are continuously explored and accelerated between existing as well new systems. The accelerated production of relations does not only substantiate system thinking, but also characterizes the fundamental nature of digital production systems.

As digital transformations are complex, some scholars have already called for a system science approach to deal with. Thereby, traditional cognitive or top-down approaches to regulate or control dynamic processes are seen as ‘last resort’. Evolving complex systems bear systemic challenges, which are wicked due to their social or cultural nature and incomplete, contradictory, interconnected, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize.

Bringing together complexity and wicked problems theories to understand how individual organizations and change agents can better influence large system change. We have developed a framework that helps to understand and cope with system interventions while taking the perspective of individual agents for change in organizations. Consequently, we do not only need to put forward theoretical understanding of transformation and change management by positioning the organization in the context of a broader system, but also need to define its role in creating change based on articulation of individual stakeholders. Individually informed articulation (e.g., on underlying principles for certain behavior patterns) is likely to facilitate addressing the nature of wicked problems by setting informed relations between individual systems and the large systems where they are embedded.

In articulation the relation of individuals as change agents and their relations to organizations and society in transformational change are considered. Sharing relational background knowledge and developing relations allow creating transformations that can be substantial and lead to emergence system behavior due to that change. In the presented samples stemming from organizational development, the essential role of individuals in a situated while cognitive transformation process becomes evident. In contrast to behavioral manipulation, cognitive transformation acts in a subjective environment. It can be experienced by everyone in the same situational context. Transformations are achieved to giving situations a different meaning than before.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:30 - 15:00

14:30

3116 Theoretical Aspect of Systems Methodology for Knowledge Management
A person gradually establishes one’s personality and becomes an expert. Such a process is related to some concepts of unconscious learning such as ‘tacit knowing’ by M.Polanyi, ‘identification’ by H.A.Simon, ‘appreciation’ by G.Vickers, ‘legitimate peripheral participation’ by J.Lave and E.Wenger, and ‘blind point’ by O.Scharmer. Based on the concepts, we investigate the fundamental idea of an inquiry and learning process of systems methodologies for knowledge management. We then discuss that the establishment of personality and mastery are a process of exteriorization into an organization. In this presentation I will show some details of the above concerns.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:30 - 15:00
2nd Floor, Room SR 125, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

14:30

3177 Assessment of Systems Thinking and Systems Analysis Skills in Higher Education: the Case of a Sustainable Resource Management Program
System thinking and system analysis are important skills in solving problems in our complex world. Research from the last two decades showed that students of all domains of sciences are not well prepared to understand correctly the dynamic behaviour of even very simple systems. This phenomenon can be tested and evaluated with help of so-called bathtub tasks that represent simple stock and flow relationships of simple systems. Many studies identified a surprisingly poor performance on different levels of education and even on the level of domain experts. This raises the question if sufficient education in system science will result in better performance to solve complex system problems. Since, 2001, the School of Forest Science and Resource Management of the Technische Universität München offers the International Master of Science (MSc.) Program in Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) which attracts students from all over the world. The SRM Programme includes classes in systems theory and systems analysis in order to improve students’ ability to understand and solve complex problems in interrelated systems that are commonly subject of resource management activities. At the beginning of the system theory class students are invited to participate in an assessment that includes a questionnaire and solving system dynamics tasks (bathtub tasks). The questionnaire asks about their personal and educational background, previous experiences in system sciences and their opinion about own skills and the relevance of system thinking in their career. The bathtub tasks are slightly modified applications of the original bathtub tasks so that results can be compared with other existing studies. The presentation will show some selected results and discuss some experiences from these activities. Until now, poor performances of master students still persist. Only very few students choose to focus more on system thinking and systems analysis skills in their further study programme. However, presumably other scientific methods and approaches are much more accepted and appreciated in conventional academic educational systems than systems thinking and system analysis. It is recommended to increase the presents and relevance of courses on system thinking and system analysis into contemporary academic education.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:30 - 15:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

15:00

Cancelled: 3162 A Cybernetic Approach for Changing Vehicular Circulation from Difficult to Smart in Cities of Developing Countries
We describe the partial results of a research in systems engineering for a specific socio-technical situation. It addresses the problem of urban circulation in Latin American cities not so technologically advanced. The rating of their circulation performance is very low, when travel times are considered, which produces big ecological, health and economic impacts. The problem is serious and it is still growing. The city traffic system is complex because of the large number of participants and because of the intricacies of their interrelationships. The difficulty of framing this research is observed in that it touches on five known thematic axes: Governance, Economy, Health, Ecology and Technology. The central idea to communicate is that the solution to the problem must be systemic. No feasible solutions will be obtained if the implemented actions are of trial-and-error nature, only technical or only social reductionist approaches, or copied from solutions designed for cities of different locations. The proposal is to gather the main city stakeholders at the systemic academic approach and to guide the improvement process with tested and validated effective actions. Some of the difficulties that have been detected so far concern: describing the unstructured problem; setting up the soft systemic model and finding the feasibility conditions for the solution. After looking at the literature on the subject, outstanding scientific advances are found in the topics of the ecological automobile, the autonomous vehicle or the smart city, with proposals based on electromechanical, communications, and computing fields. They are taken into account for the project, but their expectation for been operative does not make them affordable for this case. Nevertheless, many autonomous vehicle details could be useful under a systemic view: what makes it operational is the information exchange with its environment. The synergetic operation of traffic in a congested city requires a proper information usage. In several studied cases, the urban infrastructure does not inform the driver about the restrictions, the driver does not take advantage of information to execute his actions and the traffic regulation does not profit of information to provide corrective actions. Moreover, punitive measures are privileged over preventive ones. Solving the congestion questions of these cities would only be possible if improving actions are also committed to the physical infrastructure, the traffic regulations and the respectful driving subsystems. For this reason, organizational transformation is imperative. Within the project, coordination between soft and hard system models is analyzed, aiming to carry out simulations of identified noteworthy conflict situations. And feasibility will be particularly taken into account before implementation through the agreement of the administrative, technical and social parties, based on the research work conducted at the systemic academic guide.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 15:00 - 15:30
TBA

15:00

3089 What Does Constructor Theory Construct? - Knowledge as a Physical Property
“Constructor theory of eigenbehavior” is the most appropriate short way to describe what this article is about. To those who have encountered the idea of eigenbehavior for the first time through this issue and article, let’s say that it is related to recursions within and emergence of consciousness and information in general. In a back and forth manner between constructor theory of possible tasks and eigenbehavior as a viable (since it passes the test of existence) phenomenon. This author uses in an already published paper the metaphor of systems as footprints and wonders what kind of “animal” (constructor) might leave them behind. This article goes further in combining and criticizing constructor theory with the concept of eigenbehavior. Interpretations of quantum mechanics and physical principles are also elaborated.

The following definition is the central idea of this article. We shall insist on it even in cases when something looks unexpected, (counter)intuitive, or inevitable.

Constructor theory is the theory of which transformations

input state of substrates --> output state of substrates

can be caused and which cannot, and why.

It is a search for physical principles allegedly more fundamental than physical laws. Instead of doing physics as usual based upon initial and physical laws, the initiators of constructor theory are foremost interested in fundamentals of quantum computation, but also want to know deeper truths about other phenomena such as information, life, and thermodynamics. All of them are for different reasons closely related to what we call here eigenbehavior. This idea isn’t entirely new, but the way frame the discussion is framed with the aforementioned definition is. Worth mentioning here is also General Systems Theory (GST).

Similarities behind constructivism and constructor theory are not just in similar words, but also in their approaches to expectations from reality and doing scientific work. It is a similar mindset when we try to understand minds by shadows they cast or systems by footprints they leave behind.

The author is implementing in this paper an approach similar to constructivism, but does that in a way that other proponents of constructivism might not approve. Systems science requires a radical change of perspective and this is where the constructivist approach is helpful – in encouragement of open-mindedness about reality and ideology and playfulness with mental constructs. Constructivism in its radical form denies any ultimate truth and this is the point at which we should stop playing and get serious and rigorous. The radical form of constructivism applied to physical reality means that “we” shall never know for instance whether or not we are living in a computer simulation. It is a tiresome and annoying exercise (try to walk while being cynical about each step) in empty philosophizing and a futile attempt by someone who doesn’t understand to deny the right of anyone else to understand or get closer to understanding. Even if humans will never be able to understand everything, that’s because of our limitations rather than physical reality being somewhat questionable. A defeatist and nihilist approach to thinking and doing should be discouraged. It is just plain wrong to insist (and still be sane) that physical and/or societal principles and the Universal Constructor are whatever we want them to be.

This article will have two parallel story-lines in order to allow the reader to compare strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and what the author has to say about it. The author is first and foremost interested in understanding the truth and open to critique (it would be tiresome to read every sentence beginning with “In my opinion…”).

Wednesday July 12, 2017 15:00 - 15:30
2nd Floor, Room SR 125, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

15:00

3159 A Study on the Career Choice of Late Adolescents in Republic of Korea
The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the career choices of Korean youths in late adolescence. The data for this study came from the youth panel (YP2007) of the Korea Employment Information Office. SPSS (WIN) 21.0 was used for the analysis of data. Binary logistic regression analysis identified variables influencing career choice, and causality was examined. Among the respondents, 36.1% had career choices and 63.9% did not. In order to verify the research hypothesis, career development, negative self-esteem, job level, positive self-esteem, job level, daily stress (current), stress during daily life (past 3 years), mother's final educational background, the household's total earning income, participation in career guidance and counseling, and 14-year-old residence location served as independent variables. Analysis of the data established that career development and daily life stress (current) affected results negatively. Positive self - esteem and job level, daily life stress (past 3 years), career guidance and counseling participation, The fact that residents of Seoul, Busan and Jeonbuk proved to have a static effect.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 15:00 - 15:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:00

3014 Critical Systems Thinking and Engaged Community Operations Research in Action: An Application to Promote Peace Among Urban and Rural Communities
The relationship between systems thinking and Community Operational Research (COR) has been controversial. This paper shows how the simultaneous use of systems thinking and COR can be used to learn across research community boundaries in order to improve the lives and collaboration among people of marginalized communities. It has been argued that COR’s practice has a common concern: the meaningful engagement of one or more communities. Moreover, it has been pointed out that COR practitioners have been concerned with generating social improvement as well as designing new methodologies, methods, techniques and processes of engagement. In this paper we describe a research inquiry guided by critical systems thinking and COR in which members from different local and marginalized communities, collaborating with external researchers, conceived and developed a peace program that has been implemented in hundreds of schools and more than thirty cities, and that has affected the lives of the families and communities in which it has operated. This research program has fostered a culture of peace in social contexts in which cultures of violence used to prevail. The paper presents qualitative as well as quantitative evidence of the impact of the research inquiry. We show that the key elements to achieve these results have been the engagement of local communities and the use of critical systems thinking. The communities have participated in the understanding of the problematic situations to be addressed, as well as in the conception and design of alternatives to create meaningful improvements in these situations. This intervention has taken advantage of diverse systemic problem structuring methods (interactive planning, soft systems methodology, causal loop diagramming, etc.) and has used critical systems thinking, boundary critique, and critical systems heuristics. The combination of these methodologies and methods has allowed marginalized groups to express their ideas in safe and constructive environments. The continuous use of boundary critique during 14 years has allowed the communities to redefine the peace program several times, to question our understanding of what we mean by an engaged community, to increase people's participation, to address the complexity of the problematic situations, and to prevent less than fully responsible actions in these situations. The paper shows how the use of critical systems thinking and engaged COR can prevent some ethical research problems such as researchers' self-deception, groupthink, ignoring vital information, giving too much importance to the participants' self-interests, interpreting situations from inaccurate and narrow perspectives, and uncritical deference to authority.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:00 - 16:30
4th Floor, Room SR 384, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:00

3076 The Provide-Pickup Paradigm: The Cornerstone in a General Systems Framework for Agency and Governance in Social Systems
In spite of significant advances in technology in today’s world, our large social systems—workplaces, schools, and more—are marked by increasing social decline. Organization practices typically have conflicting approaches of two camps—top-down directive versus bottom-up participatory. A new unifying paradigm is needed. The aim of this paper is to uncover, understand, unify and clarify the laws of human social systems, as we have done with the laws of material and mechanical systems. Illustrations, examples, and metaphors serve the goal of being accessible to a wide audience from a variety of disciplines, academic and lay. The development of the paper is a narrative path analysis. The path begins with large social system outcomes as the unit of focus, links it with general systems theory—Boulding’s nine-level typology of system complexity and skeleton of science —then adds specifics from a wider knowledge base drawing key concepts, literature, and evidence from instruction, management, control systems engineering, psychology, adult learning theory, plus examples from large urban schools and workplaces. The root causes of organization learning and behaviour are located within the individual system member (individual as unit of focus), and a great shift becomes evident. Namely, in mechanical systems, behavior is determined by exteriorly prescribed criteria, controlled by outside forces, including a leader, engineer or scientist. In human systems, behavior is determined by interiorly prescribed criteria, inside each learner or worker. The narrative path then ascends toward the large social system, identifying new corresponding concepts, principles and practices—from the individual system member as unit of focus, to the pair, to the small social system, and then the large or multisite social system. At the level of the individual, the CAP (cognitive, affective, psychomotor) principle is identified, that is: every system member, leader and worker, learns and performs according to his/her own willingness (affective) and ability (cognitive and psychomotor). Updated theory, at the pair level of focus, is that agency of organization learning and behaviour is not in the leader, nor the worker, but in both, thus unifying the conflicting directive and participatory camps. A new PROVIDE-PICKUP paradigm is proposed as the cornerstone of this new framework. The leader’s role is to PROVIDE input, resources and tasks; the learner/worker role is PICKUP of input, each at his/her own rate. TPO Theory (Things, People, Outcomes) is offered for predictability, stating that: In ineffective social systems, decision makers select, design, arrange, distribute, and provide their THINGS (input, resources, and tasks) without regard for their PEOPLE’S needs, abilities, perceptions, choices, and learning rates, resulting in ever-increasing negative OUTCOMES. In contrast: In effective social systems, decision makers select, design, arrange, display, distribute, and provide their THINGS explicitly to allow their PEOPLE to pick up and work according to interiorly prescribed needs and goals, abilities, perceptions, and choices, each at his or her own pace, resulting in increasingly positive OUTCOMES. Back at the level of the large social system as the unit of focus, important input is beyond the pickup range of individuals—that is beyond their [1] awareness and understanding (cognitive span), [2] concern and care (affective span), and [3] physical control (psychomotor span). The concept of span-of-control in management theory is supplemented or replaced by span-of-pickup. User-designed ideal-based automated social control systems are proposed to allow organizations and system members to flourish. Finally, the rICE methodology proposes three necessary sufficient conditions for social system designers and management to consider: organization inputs and processes are most effective when they are inclusive, continuing, and emancipatory (ICE). Further, specifics of these conditions are relative (r) to each group of users.


Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:00 - 16:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:00

3082 Emerging Properties of the Fueguinian Industrial Technological Sector
The Province of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) is an island with a legislation that has been promoting the industrial production for the last forty years. These situation has been generating diverse impacts in the social and economic order through the creation of employment, production for domestic consumption and exportation of that production to the continental zone of the country. Also, these effects were impacted or has been a consequence of national policies, economic development at national and international level. The present work is part of a bigger research which aim is to produce information about the fueguinian business structure, taking as an exponent the organizations of the technological industrial sector of the island.

The methodology of the present study is based on the consideration of the accounting information systems of each of the companies and, based on the overall analysis, seeks to deepen the information about this productive sector, highlighting the magnitudes and relations between capitals (understood as a source of financing for companies). For the recollecting data stage, a model called "Capital Relationships Map" has been designed to show some of these characteristics.

This analysis of relations allows us to consider the level of diversity as a property of capital, which is destined to the production of technological goods in the special customs area (Tierra del Fuego), and seeks to recognize sensitive elements that can cause a great impact changes to the local environment, resulting from this network of complex relationships.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:00 - 16:30

16:00

3135 Proposal of a Capability Maturity Model for Health and Productivity Management


1. Background

Currently, as society progresses, it faces a challenge of increased social security expenses. It is important for companies to promote health, in order to suppress the growth of social security expenses. Considering this, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry initiated the “Health and Productivity Management Stock Selection” and the “Certified Health and Productivity Management Organization Recognition Program.” However, as health and productivity management (HPM) is a relatively new perspective, individuals within a company, who are responsible for HPM, are struggling to identify the problems to design and conduct HPM activities.

2. Proposal

We propose the following two items. The first is a capability maturity model for health and productivity management (CMM-HPM) and the second is a guideline to utilize the CMM-HPM in accordance with the objectives.

2-1 Development of the CMM-HPM

The purpose of this research is to establish a system that enables business managers in charge of HPM to comprehend the overall picture, clarify issues, make specific efforts, and improve HPM activities.

In order to realize the above purpose, we extracted 19 evaluation criteria, based on the “HPM superior corporation certification” announced by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.

We defined the criteria of each level as follows:

Level 1 is the “Initial Level” in which the HPM activities are not performed or are performed temporarily. There is no evidence to confirm that these activities were continuously conducted. Level 2 is the “Managed Level” in which a specific person leads the HPM activities. These activities can continue as long as the specific person remains in the respective position. However, there is no evidence to confirm that these activities would be continuously conducted after the person moves to another position. Level 3 is the “Defined Level” in which the activities are defined in the company rules and/or processes. These activities are expected to be continuously conducted, considering that the rules and/or processes do not change. Level 4 is the “Quantitatively Managed Level” in which the performance of the activities is measured and managed, based on the measured data. Level 5 is the “Optimizing Level” in which processes or activities can be improved, based on the analysis of the measured data.

In order to develop the CMM-HPM, we divided the 19 evaluation items into five levels.

2-2 Developing guidelines to utilize the CMM-HPM

Using the CMM-HPM, it is possible to identify the current status of HPM activities. However, it is not easy to decide the starting point of the 19 evaluation items of the CMM-HPM. Therefore, we developed guidelines that state the starting point of the CMM-HPM, according to the purpose of the HPM.

As a result of analyzing the companies that conducted HPM, it was identified that there are three major patterns of HPM objectives. The three patterns are “improving productivity,” “creating a safe workplace,” and “matching with the business.”

We conducted a system analysis for each objective and created causal-loops. Moreover, in order to meet the research objective, we developed guidelines to identify the most appropriate item of CMM-HPM to commence from, for the efficiency of the activities.

3. Evaluation

The validity of the CMM-HPM and the guidelines were evaluated for 41 companies.

The 41 companies evaluated are selected from companies listed in the “Health and Productivity Stock Selection”, examples of efficiently conducting HPM in previous research, and the “Corporate Case Study on HPM Activities” by the Japan Economic Organization Federation.

The results confirm the validity of the CMM-HPM and the guidelines.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:00 - 16:30
2nd Floor, Room SR 125, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:30

3024 Developing a Systemic Evaluation Methodology: an Approach Towards Social Program Evaluation
Evaluation is commonly seen as a systematic process to determine merit, worth, value or significance. When engaging in program evaluation, evaluators use research methods to systematically investigate the effectiveness of social intervention programs adapted to the political and organizational environment surrounding them. However, aside from having a systematic character, evaluation has at its core a systemic and a critical character as well, as it is based on the establishment of judgments and the inclusion of stakeholders, both of which inevitably affect what will be seen as an improvement. Critical in terms of not taking for granted predefined assumptions about the evaluation and systemic in terms of a dynamic attitude towards the establishment of what and who should be considered in the evaluation and the acknowledgment the existing relationships of those involved in the evaluation. Thus, the systems theory of boundary critique (about how to explore value and boundary judgements) is relevant. For this reason, we seek to propose a methodological development for conducting social program evaluations. Our methodological proposal, seeks to contribute at a theoretical and a practical level as we not only seek to present a methodology that can be widely applied in the realm of social program evaluation through a practical case but we also seek to contribute to enriching the literature that links systems thinking practice and evaluation, focusing primarily in the contributions that critical systems thinking can make to the practice of evaluation. We examine different stages of the evaluation process and show how boundary critique can be used in each one. A practical example will be provided of an evaluation of a program for teaching alternative conflict resolution techniques to children in vulnerable areas of Bogota, Colombia.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:30 - 17:00
4th Floor, Room SR 384, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:30

3090 From Hierarchies to Networks: Changes in Organisation of Public Service Delivery
Government services slowly enter new and promising era. The traditional way of organising public sector service delivery in western democracies is hierarchical. Hierarchical organisation means functional specialisation. Top layers of the hierarchy specify and specialise different parts of the hierarchy in the bottom to provide rather specific functions – services. Service provision is then fragmented. Citizen in need of long-term help often ends up using many services with low cooperation between them. These conditions lead to high costs and low quality. We currently can identify in Europe promising cases of institution which are organised as network organisations and sometimes even changed their structures from hierarchal type with great success. In this paper, we discuss what drives hierarchical organisation ineffectiveness when supporting people suffering with complex problems and what are some of the crucial conditions to organise successful network based integrated services. There are four principles discussed that are common to successful network organisations which are very different from the principles of hierarchically organised institutions – holistic service provision, flat organisation structure, high trust and capability measurement. These principles are shown on three cases - Jeugdbescherming Regio Amsterdam (aka Child Protect, Netherlands), Karolinska University Hospital (Sweden) and Buurtzorg (health and social services, Netherlands).

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:30 - 17:00

16:30

3166 Proposal of Visualising Model of Customer Demands Sufficiency Degree in Designing Private Life Insurance
Since May 2016, customer demands confirmation at the time of insurance solicitation was strengthened by the Japanese Financial Services Agency (FSA). It requires not only confirming what customer is requiring but also to realize what is required though the insurance plan proposal. To realize this, insurance company must firstly understand their customer’s needs then secondly need to show how the it can be realized though insurance plan proposed as well as how it matches with their own needs. This means both customer needs and the matches between customer intention and the proposal must by visualized. The visualisation can be realized by using three-dimensional model which has time, space and products axes. These three axes represent the elements of insurance products, which time represents 'when' insured will deserves the benefits and space represents 'for what' insured will deserves as the benefit. The customers expectation to insurance, in other words, is to clarify the function which customer are expecting out of entire functions of insurance. That is, clarifying which function of insurance is required by customer means that customer demands of insurance is identified. Therefore, the three-dimensional model can be used to visualize both what insurance can do and also the customer demands itself.

This paper aims to propose a visualised three-dimensional model which represents the structure, essence and the concept of insurance. The three-dimensional model is a model which enables the visualization of sufficiency degree of customer demands that are considered to be invisible in most of the cases. Each axes of three-dimension represents the function of life insurance. The visualising model of customer demand sufficiency degree enables to comprehends the function of insurance in public social security, private life/non-life insurance and customer demands point of view. Through the process of understanding insurance as a system using this model, people will understand how can insurance support their financial risk and find out what they should and should not expect for private life insurance product.

Through the result of workshop and the interviews to the professionals and the specialist of life insurance as for an evaluation of the model, it was proved that the model helped understanding the features and function of life insurance and participants could know their needs of insurance. And, also, they had the impression that life insurance is something valuable and will benefit for future financial risks.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:30 - 17:00
2nd Floor, Room SR 125, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:30

3179 Pattern Literacy in Support of Systems Literacy: Learning to Find the Patterns and Create the Models That Represent Systems in Words and Pictures
This session, part of the Designing Educational Systems SIG, follows up on Peter Tuddenham’s work on Systems Literacy, and on Helene Finidori’s inquiry on the role of patterns and pattern languages in bridging the fragmentation of systemic knowledge and approaches, and learning about systems. The purpose of this work is to co-explore the connection between systems knowledge representation, its embodiment and the systemic phenomena we wish to learn how to make sense of and to anticipate, using patterns as boundary objects and connectors.

At the ISSS Annual Meeting and Conference in Boulder in 2016 during a plenary session on Systems Literacy that referenced his previous work on Ocean Literacy, the presenter Peter Tuddenham asked the participants to take a 4x6 card and to either 1. Draw a System and or 2. Draw symbols to represent essential principles or big ideas (of Systems). A total of 34 Cards were handed in at the end of the plenary. The 4x6 cards were a blank space upon which different interpretations of the question were made explicit. The authors of this paper have reviewed the submitted cards and examined them for patterns and also to develop categories of responses.

This session will present the results. The implications for the representation of “Systems Literacy” will be explored, both in terms of words, and also in terms of symbols and drawings. In the light of the above, we will examine the question of deriving and formulating shared cross cutting patterns.

The process itself will be examined as a way to create a continuous development of “Systems Literacy” in complement of the quest for a General Systems Theory.

In particular, we will examine the critical role of patterns and pattern languages in embodied cognition, and we will look into how the development of a pattern literacy can reveal essential in support of systems literacy. The ultimate goal is to reflect upon how the capacity for humans to discover, record, retrieve, embody, use or design of systemic patterns can be enhanced.

A workshop session will be connected to the paper presentation. Before this session starts participants will be asked the same questions and asked to complete 4x6 cards. Their responses will be compared and contrasted with the 2016 results.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:30 - 17:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:00

3009 An Attempt to Epistemologically Ground Current Psychotherapy. Neither Between Nor Within: On the Eigenform and Viability of Human Complex Systems.
In the last 15 years, psychotherapy has progressively faced with the ambition of reshaping foundative concepts and best practices. This trend seems to be coherent with the need for a theoretical integration psychotherapists are looking for, so as to epistemologically ground their discipline. From a constructivist perspective, two major biases seem to arise: (i) the paradox of seeking for a new framework through an old one (e.g. person-centered interventions within almost-reductionist models); (ii) the tendency not to question the superordinate assumptions of all the different topics (e.g. old-fashioned realism). The paper is mainly based on Heinz von Foerster’s eigenform, Ernst von Glasersfeld’s viability and Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s general systems model and on the interconnection of these concepts with modern and contemporary psychotherapy from a
The present paper is devoted to describe a tentative framework that may foster the convergence on a superordinate epistemology and so a theoretical integration of psychotherapy. I claim that second-order cybernetics and radical constructivism offer an effective methodology in advancing psychotherapy, and that in turn psychotherapy is trying to absorb a few assumptions of this methodology. I also claim that complex system point of view may support the overcoming of ineffective dichotomies between personal and social psychology, normality and psychopathology, and so promoting a superordinate comprehension of human experience.
I first analyze the intertwined paths of Foerster’s eigenform and Glasersfeld’s viability through the lens of modern psychology and general systems theory. Subsequently, I define a theoretical model aimed to integrate this analysis and epistemologically ground psychotherapy. Finally, I describe the implications of such a framework in identifying, interconnecting and applying relevant threads in clinical practice.
The concepts of eigenform and viability lead to a versatile methodology in anticipating constraints and possibilities of human experience. I describe five foundative processes mainly based on the contiguousness and continuousness of observing systems, and on the epistemological irreversibility of life. I interconnect these processes with five recurrent dimensions of clinical psychology. These dimensions are discussed and defined as three epistemological principles and two transformational principles:
1. Systemic Emergence: the first epistemological principle tries to argue that from a theoretical point of view a system is the comergence of its observing processes, and from a clinical point of view human actively pursue a viable pattern of self-organization.
2. Fluctuational Continuousness: the second epistemological principle tries to argue that from a theoretical point of view a system is always a node, a relation, and a network, and from a clinical point of view social experience is a self-organizing source of individuation.
3. Autopoietic Contiguousness: the third epistemological principle tries to argue that from a theoretical point of view a system is the entanglement of selfhood and otherness, and from a clinical point of view personal experience is a structurally coupled embodied action.
4. Constructive Irreversibility: the first transformational principle tries to argue that from a theoretical point of view observing processes are non-balanced and irreversible, and from a clinical point of view experiencing is a dissipative and irreversible process.
5. Constraining Imbrication: transformational principle tries to argue that from a theoretical point of view observing events are locally collapsed and context-dependent, and from a clinical point of view agency is defined by informational closure and punctuation.

The thesis contributes to the complex systems research programme, by demonstrating its effectiveness in fostering psychotherapeutic integration. Although this is not the first attempt in doing this, it extensively debates and integrates the most of the recent clinical advances.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:00 - 17:30
2nd Floor, Room SR 125, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:00

3049 From 'Systematic' to 'Systemic' Research and Policy Analysis – Progressing the Application of Systems Approaches to Policy Evaluations at a European Union Research Agency (Eurofound)
This study explores the relevance and applicability of using systems approaches to enhance policy evaluation projects conducted by Eurofound(European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions) aa an exploratory case study in 'action research' mode.

This European Union (EU) agency is mandated to support European policymakers in their endeavours to improve the working and living conditions in Europe, by providing “scientifically sound and unbiased, high quality information” .

The key question of this exploration was: How can evaluation of relevant policies be accomplished as part of Eurofound’s role, and give justice to the complexities of the policies assessed and multiple perspectives and stakes involved?

The overall aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of current approaches and methods in policy evaluation activities of complex social policies and phenomena undertaken by Eurofound, and to test the ‘systemic desirability and cultural feasibility’ (Checkland, 1990) of moving beyond a ‘first-order science’ research tradition within Eurofound to advance opportunities for applying systems concepts and approaches in these activities.

Methodology

The action research consisted in a specially designed systemic enquiry designed by the author, and conducted jointly with research staff of the agency as they engaged in the implementation of Eurofound policy analysis (research) project consisting of a series of analyses and workshops using different systems approaches (elements of SSM and CSH). This systemic enquiry was applied to a selected case study: a then current Eurofound research project ‘Delivering public services: a greater role for the private sector? Hospital services’ (Eurofound, 2015a, p. 39). This project aimed to analyse the ‘implications of privatisation for access, quality and effectiveness of services’ in the hospital sector across EU Member States. This situation features a number of ‘complex’ characteristics. To test the usefulness and applicability of selected systems approaches was the aim of the action research implemented in this case study.

Conclusions

The experience from this action research applied to the ‘hospital services’ case has shown that the standard approach is not always sufficient for a deeper understanding of a situation to be researched at the start of a project, and can usefully be complemented and enhanced by systems approaches.

The experience and validation interviews with researchers in Eurofound suggested that there could be real value for research and policy evaluation projects in Eurofound to embed systemic inquiry streams into the overall project design, under some conditions:

For projects with wide and fuzzy scope (boundary explorations to inform research questions);
Where new territory is explored (exploratory social learning and scoping);
In complex policy situations with diverse and multiple stakeholders (interrelationships and multiple perspectives).
Whilst it would be ‘systemically desirable’ to broaden a systemic approach to researching similar policies with shared characteristics, there are institutional barriers to the ‘cultural feasibility’, as the mainstream way of conducting research continues to dominate and imposes important constraints to such opportunities. These consist in short research project cycle times, and pressures to deliver results fast, leaving little time and scope for reflexivity and exploratory methods. Additionally, introducing systems approaches into policy evaluation projects exposes paradigmatic and epistemic tensions. The default way of doing research and evaluation projects ‘systematically’ sits uncomfortably with systemic approaches, which implicitly challenge the conventional way of framing and approaching research inquiries. This experience resonates with Argyris’ and Schön’s ‘theory of action’, in which there is a gap between a ‘theory in use’ (the ‘normal’ ways things are done in organisations) compared to ‘espoused theory’ (what is claimed to be done in rhetoric), (Argyris and Schön (1974, 1978, 1996), Argyris (1990). What Eurofound states in its work programme is one thing (‘to assess policies and practices’) (‘espoused theory’), however, in practice it currently falls short of this ambition, as the standard approaches for normal research projects continue to be used (for example standard case study methodology).

In order to move forward from this, a ‘shift’ will be needed. As suggested by Argyris and Schön, this calls for ‘double-loop’ learning to bring about transformational change in the organisational and academic culture in research organisations like Eurofound, and to dissolve the contradictions and ‘organisational defensive routines’. This will require time, and finding and engaging further ‘allies’ across the organisation to pursue this aim. Opportunities exist at several levels:

Transfer the experiences from the ‘hospital services’ project to other projects and researchers, through internal conversations about these experiences.
Raise this discussion in the ‘official discourse’ in the organisation, to increase interest in ‘reflexivity’ and give it legitimacy within the ‘projectified world’ of the organisation.
Future research methodology developments might provide space to enhance the methodological frameworks of the agency.
Further explorations could be conducted within the context of agencies' networks, to explore further how systemic approaches could be used by other agencies to enhance their scientific processes for policy areas with systemic and complex characteristics, such as inter-relationships, multiple perspectives and boundary judgements.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:00 - 17:30
4th Floor, Room SR 384, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:00

3105 Strategic Alliances Between Independent Participants
Globally, digital solutions are gaining prominence and their prevalence and proliferation is evident by the rate of adoption by the masses. Organizations in government, civil, commercial and business domains are increasingly adopting digital to reach out to customers and impact them in ways that were not possible earlier. Digital technologies are far more pervasive now and their mass adoption has enabled information generation, and application in the form of information technology in different areas. The corner stone of digital technologies has been the creation, manipulation, and enhancement of meaningful information which significantly change the way organizations engage with their customers.
Presently, there are practices, approaches, methods, life-cycle processes, frameworks, methodologies that help organizations in synthesizing, evaluating and implementing digital technologies in their respective areas of business. There are model based engineering and architecting approaches that have been found to be useful in computer-aided-generation of software systems from an expression of corresponding models. In all these situations, what comes to the fore is that most of the available approaches, follow the notion of “How to” do things rather than “why” it should be done, “what” should really be done” and “when” it should be done. This is further evident when we see that solutions in one area of application are not found to be useful in other areas. In other words, the digital solution patterns are useful for only one instance and are not useful for further instantiations.
There are different schools of thought with regard to digital technologies and how businesses can utilize them. Gartner is of the view that the nexus of forces (Cloud, Mobile, Social, and Information) are the driving factors for digital technologies and related business. TCS is of the view that the digital five forces (Cloud, Big Data, Social, Mobility, and Robotics & Artificial intelligence) are the driving factors for digital technologies and related business. HBR is of the view that smart, connected, miniaturized devices (Internet of Things) are the driving force of digital technologies and related businesses. One thing that is evident from these views is that, all of them speak about the constituent parts but they do not say clearly: a) Why should these parts exists? b) Are these parts sufficient? c) How to put these parts together to form a whole? d) When should these parts be used? e) What is the evolution path of these parts? f) What could be evolution path of the whole? g) What is the underlying systems model for digital based solutions?
This paper is an attempt to articulate the digital journey, the different levels of discourse in the digital journey and the possible evolution of the digital technologies to address the contextual knowledge needs of the human civilization. As an exemplar, the digital journey of supporting customer experiences design using digital technologies is taken up and illustrated in this paper.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:00 - 17:30

17:00

3160 Modes of Analogy 'What Human Cognitive Abilities Capture Structures from the World?'
Every new things and ideas involve any inventions inside. If people attempts to elucidate those creative abilities to make them being enable, there would be one question that people could come up with. “What human cognitive abilities capture as structures from the world?” Structualisme gave an answer to this problem through Metonymy and Metaphor. Recently those questions are relocated in analogies. However those solutions have not been reached out to concise suggestions to apply analogies to several fields in practical way due to be unclear and uncomfortable to utilize them.

Analogies are generally described in these three; proportional analogies, predictive analogies and analogical problem solving in existing research on analogies. These classifications are fit to comparing results which are available to observe from outside as data, but not good enough for analogies generation processes which are ways to know human cognitive effect. By current general cognitive processes of analogies, it begins with source domain and target domain to get analogy. Then there are key effects in middle of analogies processes; retrieval, mapping and transfer. In order to make the capacity for putting analogies to practical use, it should be considered to refine the works on some key elements on cognitive processes such like memories, abstraction and transfer. To those problems, this study has been approached to make an addition to types of memory by Larry Squire with ‘memory of image’ as the third memory. Therefore, in this study it is considered that most of metaphors are utilized to understand things to make them outstanding, and metonymy refers to describe things through part-whole relation. In addition, it is concerned that synecdoche based on concept hierarchy is also a class metonymy. It attempts to formulate analogies for analogies research by categorizing analogies as working modes to find out relations. Considering these points, this paper provides 5 types of analogies modes in the categories of metonymical and metaphorical at first, then 3 types of analogies modes which could be located in new categories between metonymy and metaphor to give an answer to “What human cognitive abilities capture as structures from the world?”

The previous study of analogies generation processes in human cognitive science has been adopted in this study to make processes more clear. In evaluating modes of analogy, ‘transfer’ which is a key element on analogies processes should be also refined. For this problem, this paper gives an attention to what things make relations on each domains; source and target. Then this paper gives two classifications to show features of relations between source and Target domains. Also, this paper provides one more kind of classification to know features from modes of analogy. According to features of existing analogies, modes of analogy could be divided in case-based analogies and no case-based analogies. Through these framings, this study found that some modes of analogy could be considered that they displays more creativity on the analogies generation processes than other modes of analogy.

As a result of this achievement, this study found one unique way to capture structures by human cognitive besides metonymical and metaphorical ways. It shows relations even there is no common axis to link between things. Some part of this field were mentioned in philosophy as ‘strength’. It means human cognitive captures structures in infinity, and this is before representations. This field will be discussed in future work.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:00 - 17:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:30

3031 Green Decision Making: Sustainable Transport and Systemic Planning (SP)
The generic framework for planning and decision support set out in this paper is the outcome of the research work carried out in recent years in the international research project SUSTAIN concerning national sustainable transport planning. In the paper focus is on sustainable transport and infrastructure assessment and on the methodology and process of systemic planning (SP).

SP theory development has interchanged with practical application and testing of the SP approach in a large number of cases. The word systemic in SP indicates that complex planning problems and provision of decision support in today’s strategic planning needs a focus on what may be addressed as systemic insights in balance with more conventional, systematically-based findings where causal linkages can be modelled and made use of. In practice this means that SP is based on a study-specific combination of hard (quantitative) and soft (qualitative) operations research (OR) methods; especially the latter have a function as regards knowledge generation that relates to obtaining systemic insights. Furthermore, SP applies a process that drives group-based learning forward. The group should be formed with the different stakeholder interests as regards the outcome represented by different group members. The process is guided by a facilitator and is assisted by an analyst, with the analyst providing ongoing, interactive modelling. This collective (man/machine) learning aims to lead to a final decision (or decision recommendation) about the best alternative or course of action for the actual strategic planning problem. The flexibility of SP makes it adaptable to different problem types.

The paper is disposed as follows: After the Introduction about green decision making, Section 2 presents five SP-perspectives, where each perspective is grounded in a particular research approach that serves a particular function in the SP framework. The following Section 3 describes the SP modelling toolbox consisting of 2 x 7 soft and hard OR methods. Based on the previous sections, Section 4 describes the ‘SP-wheel’, which is the process-driver behind an iterative group-based learning cycle, intended to provide decision support for the actual decision making. The SP-wheel consists of 8 steps which produce knowledge that is intended to accumulate as final decision support. In the following Section 5 findings from a number of conducted case studies are applied to illuminate various aspects of the individual steps in the SP-wheel. A final Section 6 presents findings and perspective.

A more comprehensive treatment of the SP framework presented in the paper and the ideas behind the framework is available as a free E-book download from the author’s ResearchGate page: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Steen_Leleur GREEN DECISION MAKING – How Systemic Planning can support Strategic Decision Making for Sustainable Transport Development, Tech. Univ. of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering, April 2017.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:30 - 18:00
4th Floor, Room SR 384, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:30

17:30

3244 Paying Attention to the Emotions in the Processes of Change using the VSM
The Beer´s Viable System Model (VSM) is a powerful tool for studying organizations as cohesive “wholes” and for evaluating their strategies counter to the complexity of the tasks they must perform. Primarily, it is a tool to diagnose the effectiveness of the structure of the organization, and offers a conceptual model of the information system to the management. It also allows assessing the consequences of organizations' policies.

Social and human actors are not trivial, they pursue ideals, ends, objectives, and have preferences and values, all of which may change. To model that, there are three dimensions to take in account: activities, structure and behavior.

The last dimension mentioned above, behavior, can be of interest at distinct levels: individuals, teams, organizational units, a whole organization, networks, etc. But a mere arrangement and the relationship with behaviors. And when took about behaviors, it´s necessary took about emotions, perceptions and cognition.

The VSM has been adopted by several researchers and practitioners for diagnosing organizational performance, and/or for (re)structuring organizations based on the factors essential and adequate for its long-term viability. In this paper, the scope is to design or change companies to assess and take responsibility for the company's effects on environmental and social wellbeing

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:30 - 18:00