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Monday, July 10
 

14:00

2998 Positive Systems Science: Bringing Together Positivity, Complexity, and Temporality
Positive Systems Science (PSS) explicitly brings together the strength-based lens of positive psychology with the complex, holistic lens of systems science, with the ultimate goal of bringing about desired change that supports the wellbeing of human social systems. This presentation opens an interdisciplinary conversation about how positivity, complexity, and temporality come together.
The field of positive psychology focuses on positivity, including understanding and building happiness, the “good life”, and optimal functioning in individuals, organizations, and broader communities. Among the psychological sciences, it is one of the most applied areas, successfully connecting with researchers, professionals, policy makers, and the general public.
Systems science incorporates complexity, considering aspects such as feedback, unintended consequences, dynamic associations, and changes that occur within any given system. It has developed a range of tools that can be used to understand and address the complexity of human life.
Underlying practice and research in both of these fields is temporality – how factors and events unfold, interplay, and change over time.
Systems science and positive psychology both have strengths and weaknesses, and we suggest that the synthesis of the two perspectives will create frameworks, tools, and applications that are greater than either perspective alone. Such an approach does not simply identify and address existing problems, but generates pathways toward yet unimagined futures.
We will show how existing areas of research and practice reflect aspects of PSS, including youth development, organizational scholarship, public health, and social ecology. These examples illustrate the PSS framework and begin to link relevant areas of scholarship and practice.

Chairs
avatar for John Vodonick

John Vodonick

SIG Chair: Systemic Ethics, Exploratory Group: Business Systems Laboratory, Two Ravens Consulting
I teach, write and consult in the areas of corporate social responsibility, change management, organizational design and social ethics. Most organizations come to a place in their evolution when the needs of the stakeholders are not being met and if that continues to be the norm the... Read More →

Presenters/Facilitators
AP

Ass. Prof. Lindsay Oades

Director, Centre for Positive Psychology, University of Melbourne


Monday July 10, 2017 14:00 - 14:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

14:30

2997 Systems Science Goes to the Movies: Using Positive Psychology to Bring Systems Science to Everyone AND 2995 A Re-Envisioning of Leverage Points using Positive Psychology
Positive psychology provides a platform for bringing systems science to life. The field has rapidly captured the attention of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. We suggest that positive psychology can add value to systems science by making tools and theories more useable, practical, and engaging.

Positive psychology examines what makes a good life. The field has developed numerous interventions and strategies to help people thrive. However, there is a tendency to focus on individuals, ignoring the complex context in which the person resides. Systems science has much to offer to research and practice in positive psychology, and yet the terms and concepts can be inaccessible.

The creativity of positive psychologists can help make systems tools and theories more approachable. For example, the Pixar movie “Inside Out” illustrates multiple perspectives within and between each character (personified as joy, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust characters within each person’s head), inter-relationships of the system (e.g., actions by the emotions impact how Riley behaves, and experiences impact the structure within Riley’s brain), and unintended consequences of a given action. This workshop will illustrate how movies and other mediums can strip away jargon and illustrate key systems principles in a more accessible manner.

Monday July 10, 2017 14:30 - 15:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

15:00

2996 From the Science of Positive Psychology to Systemic Solutions for Education: Strategically using Language to Positively Impact Mindsets
ABSTRACT: Positive education is a relatively new area which applies the science of positive psychology to education. It emphasizes well-being and academic achievement as complementary goals of education. Yet the educational context is complex and dynamic, and simplistic psychological interventions can be ineffective at best and harmful at worst when this complexity and the underlying structures of the system are ignored.
Systems science provides theories and tools that adequately recognize the complexity of educational systems. Yet although the field acknowledges that mindsets are a key lever for change, it lacks strategies to successfully shift those mindsets, many of which are formed and solidified through the adolescent years.
This presentation will illustrate how language provides one avenue for bridging the systems perspective with the science of positive psychology to positively impact mindsets at both individual and collective levels within educational settings. Language enables social interactions and provides a sense of meaning and connection amongst people. How a person speaks says a lot about who they are, where they are from, and the experiences they have had. Slight word changes can significantly change the meaning of a sentence or the tone of a conversation.
Notably, simple shifts in language play an important role in shifting an individual’s mindset from resistance to possibility, and in shifting a school’s culture from welfare to well-being. Drawing on several case studies, we illustrate how the strategic use of a common, positive language offers a strategic approach for shifting individual and collective mindsets in a sustainable, positive manner.

Monday July 10, 2017 15:00 - 15:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:00

3059 System Thinking for Global Political Citizenship Education
Humans are political animals but need to be better ones, because like all other animals, indeed all life forms, they are connected, through their various social systems of all types and at all levels, more closely than ever before with a planet’s subsystems increasingly interlocking in a global system. Their role as political animals is crucial because politics remains the authoritative distribution of values. In a global society lacking an equivalent world government, humans are everywhere performing political activities on different levels, from households to villages, from cities to provinces, from states to suprastate entities, from individual economic transactions to membership in organizations interacting with other organizations, that, in the context of globalization, cannot help affecting the lives of others around the world. Because all political decisions matter, it is necessary in constructing a global society as a system for humans to cultivate their political citizenships, and for others to help them understand what the needs of a sustainable future for the earth require them to take into consideration in their political choices from the perspective of system theory.

Monday July 10, 2017 16:00 - 16:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:30

3108 University for Business and Technology Knowledge Center: Making Local Knowledge Visible
In setting the aspirational vision for University for Business and Technology, founder Dr. Edmond Harjrizi sought to educate Kosovo students to become active contributors to the society and at the workplace, within the country, the Baltic region, and beyond. For historical reasons, success initially depended on inviting lecturers and scholars from abroad, as reflected in the university’s brand statement, ‘American European Education’. Now, after more than a decade of successfully educating Kosovo graduates and developing Kosovo instructors, the University plans to further awareness and promote usage of university produced knowledge, within the institution and throughout the country, in a Knowledge Center.
This UBT Knowledge Center initiative extends the founding vision of national development through higher education. Reflective of its institutional maturity, the University now produces considerable local knowledge, including but not limited to faculty publications and presentations, student paper and reports, and commissioned studies and reports. In the first stage of this initiative to enhance visibility and accessibility of local knowledge, computer science students developed the code for a repository of UBT faculty publication and presentation references, which now serves as the platform for the Kosovo national faculty bibliography.
In this second phase of making local knowledge visible, the University will create a repository system and associated workflows for acquisition, organization, and dissemination of student research projects, faculty research papers, and community research reports. This initiative acknowledges a university’s responsibility to foster democratic civil society and regional economic growth, as well as further smart business practices and higher education efficiencies. Since local knowledge, identity, and learning are necessarily situated, Kosovo students, faculty, staff, and administrators serve as domain experts and international educators from Sweden and the United States serve as design facilitators.
After two years of planning activities, initiation of human-centered design for the UBT Knowledge Center commenced in April 2017 in a graduate level Information Systems Analysis, Design, and Modeling course at the Pristina campus. Soft systems design tools guided exploration of essential questions related to the why, what, and how of this national innovation generator. Since this initiative acknowledges the social context of learning – that knowledge is acquired and understood through action, interaction, and sharing with others, soft systems models and processes explored social relationships necessary for information exchange and knowledge creation enabled by technology.

In this paper, a pedagogical model is presented for initiating student learning about systems thinking ideas and tools, such as the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) Rich Picture and PQR technique. Student projects illustrate application of these tools to advance local knowledge visibility within prototype UBT Knowledge Center environments. Course evaluations reveal students’ success in advancing knowledge ecosystem design through soft systems. One student expressed this as now “my life will have two eras, before SSM and after SSM”.

Concluding reflections explore implications for the University’s knowledge vision, including consideration of interrelationships between university and society which develop new and more complex ways for working with people, information, and technology. This necessarily includes educating graduates to curate, interpret, and use information to create knowledge, which preserves intellectual, cultural, national, and regional resources for future generations.

Monday July 10, 2017 16:30 - 17:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:00

3002 Generic Early Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: An Assessment of the Signals' Utility as a Predictive Management Tool
Complex systems range from business entities to the climate. Complex systems have tipping points at which a small perturbation can trigger a critical transition leading to an emergence at an alternate stable state. Although there are differences in the nature of complex systems, their behaviors exhibit universal characteristics as they near tipping points. Among such characteristics are common generic early warning signals that precede critical transitions. The signals include: critical slowing down in which the rate of recovery from perturbations decreases over time; an increase in the variance of the state variable; an increase in the skewness of the state variable; an increase in the autocorrelations of the state variable; flickering between different states; and characteristic spatial patterns, such as an increase in spatial correlations over time. Presence of such signals has significant management implications, as the identification of the signals prior to the tipping point could allow management to identify intervention points. Despite the applications of the generic early warning signals in various fields, such as studies on fisheries, semiconductor research, and studies on epileptic seizures, a review of literature did not identify any applications in the area of managing student program withdrawal at the undergraduate level in distance universities, hence the research gap. This area could benefit from the application of generic early warning signals because the program withdrawal rate amongst distance university students is higher than the program withdrawal rate at face-to-face conventional universities. The program withdrawal problem presents an existential crisis for distance universities especially since, in some jurisdictions, public funding is dependent on the volume of students who persist and complete their courses. The proposed generic early warning signals for critical transition are not without controversy. Some researchers have argued that the identification of variables to which the generic signals were applied can only be accomplished post hoc, and that in some of the analyzed case studies the generic early warning signals remained absent despite the critical transitions. This is referred to as false negatives. Literature also suggests that the risk of false positives exists, where the signals are identified despite the absence of a critical transition. This research assessed the generic early warning signals through an intensive case study of undergraduate program student withdrawal at a Canadian distance university. The university is non-cohort based due to its system of continuous course enrolment where students can enrol in a course at the beginning of every month. The university’s student population therefore consists largely of adult learners given its convenient system of asynchronous distance learning which allows students to pursue individualized study. The assessment of the signals was achieved through the comparison of the incidences of generic early warning signals among students who withdrew or simply became inactive in their undergraduate program of study, the true positives, to the incidences of the generic early warning signals among graduates, the false positives. Research findings showed support for the signal pertaining to the rise in flickering which is represented in the increase in the student’s non-pass rates prior to withdrawing from a program; moderate support for the signals of critical slowing down as reflected in the increase in the time a student spends in a course; and moderate support for the signals on increase in autocorrelation and increase in variance in the grade variable. The findings did not support the signal on the increase in skewness of the grade variable. The assessment of the signals suggests that the signals, with the exception with the increase of skewness, could be utilized as a predictive management tool and potentially add one more tool in addressing the student program withdrawal problem.

Monday July 10, 2017 17:00 - 17:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:30

3046 Ethical Regulators and SuperEthical Systems
The Good Regulator Theorem proved that every effective regulator of a system must be a model of that system, and the Law of Requisite Variety dictates the range of responses that an effective regulator must be capable of. However, having an internal model and a sufficient range of responses is insufficient to ensure effective regulation, let alone ethical regulation. And whereas being effective does not require being optimal, being ethical is absolute with respect to a particular ethical schema.

This paper takes the Good Regulator Theorem, and unifies it with the Law of Requisite Variety and seven other requisites. The resulting Ethical Regulator Theorem has implications for designing and certifying explicitly ethical systems. It claims that the following nine requisites are necessary and sufficient for a cybernetic regulator to be effective and ethical:

Truth is not just about information that the regulator receives as inputs or treats as facts, but also the reliability of any interpretations of such information. If the regulator’s information sources or interpretations are unreliable, and cannot be error-corrected, then the integrity of the system is in danger. And if the perceptions of the regulator can be manipulated, it can be tricked into making decisions that are ineffective or unethical.

Variety in the range of possible actions must be as rich as the range of potential disturbances or situations. This is The Law of Requisite Variety.

Predictability requires a model that can be used to select the actions that will give the best outcome. This is the Good Regulator Theorem.

Purpose is expressed as unambiguously prioritized goals.

Ethics are expressed as unambiguously prioritized values that have a higher priority than the goals for purpose. By always obeying the relevant highest priority ethical imperatives, the regulator is guaranteed to act ethically within the scope of the ethical schema. Because ethical schemas vary between legislative jurisdictions, they are handled as plug-ins.

Intelligence must be applied to the previous five requisite types of information to select the most rational and effective ethical action from the set of possible actions.

Influence is the existence of pathways to transmit the effects of the selected actions to the regulated system. This is not a property of the regulator itself, but a function of the connectivity relationships that span from the regulator’s outputs to elements of the regulated system and its environment.

Integrity of the regulator and all its subsystems must be assured. Monitoring mechanisms must identify if an ethical imperative is violated and, if necessary, automatically notify the appropriate authorities, preserve evidence, and activate an ethical fail-safe mode.

Transparency is defined by the Law of Ethical Transparency, which states “For a system to be truly ethical, it must be possible to prove retrospectively that it acted ethically with respect to the appropriate ethical schema.”

Integrity and Transparency are codependent because we require integrity of transparency, and transparency of integrity.

Because this theorem is independent of the ethics schema that is used, it provides a basis for systematically evaluating the adequacy of existing or proposed designs for systems that make decisions that can have ethical consequences; regardless of whether the systems are human, machines, or cyberanthropic hybrids.

In addition, a new framework is proposed for classifying cybernetic systems, which highlights the existence of a possibility-space bifurcation in our future time-line, and the implementation of “super-ethical” systems is identified as an urgent moral imperative for the human race to avoid a technological dystopia. Concrete actions are proposed to steer our future towards a cyberanthropic utopia.

Monday July 10, 2017 17:30 - 18:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria
 
Tuesday, July 11
 

16:00

3117 A Systems Thinking Perspective for Designing an Online Information Security Laboratory
A person gradually establishes one’s personality and becomes an expert. Such a process is related to some concepts of unconscious learning such as ‘tacit knowing’ by M.Polanyi, ‘identification’ by H.A.Simon, ‘appreciation’ by G.Vickers, ‘legitimate peripheral participation’ by J.Lave and E.Wenger, and ‘blind point’ by O.Scharmer. Based on the concepts, we investigate the fundamental idea of an inquiry and learning process of systems methodologies for knowledge management. We then discuss that the establishment of personality and mastery are a process of exteriorization into an organization. In this presentation I will show some details of the above concerns.

Tuesday July 11, 2017 16:00 - 16:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:30

3037 Can We Train Students to Be Systems Thinkers- Additional Results
Systems thinking, a holistic approach that puts the study of wholes before that of parts, is an efficient way of dealing with real-world situations. By emphasizing the interrelationships between the system's components rather than the components themselves, systems thinking allows us to increase our personal and professional effectiveness, and transform our organizations. Specifically, systems thinkers can conceptually analyse the system without knowing all the details, recognizing the forest through the trees. They can see beyond the surface to the deeper patterns that are responsible for creating behaviour.

The current study deals with the development of systems thinking among students and graduates of technology management. The goals of the study are to identify the factors that influence the development of systems thinking and to find ways to encourage this development. We used a variety of research tools: A questionnaire for assessing the capacity for systems thinking, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type test and supervisor evaluations.

In conclusion, the current study findings show that graduates with certain personality traits can gradually acquire or improve their capacity for systems thinking by receiving appropriate training and through a wide range of work experience, and by holding different job positions over time. Having a broad range of professional experience and holding different job positions can help graduates gain knowledge and become familiar with diverse systems and technologies.

Tuesday July 11, 2017 16:30 - 17:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:00

3095 Ability to Raise Questions as a Modern Skill
The paper is devoted to the issue of cooperation and coordination of efforts in modern world. The role of questions is being considered. Authors describe three new techniques of raising and using questions and put the problem of developing forms and methods of education that will motivate and teach people to raise questions.

Tuesday July 11, 2017 17:00 - 17:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:30

3069 Soft Systems Methodology and Cognitive Mapping: A Linkage Between the Initial Phases of Designing Educational Systems
Systems Thinking enables to simplify our thinking about and management of complex realities and messes. Throughout the existence of the Systems Thinking philosophy several systems approaches have been developed with varying perspectives and purposes. This paper focus on the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) which emerged from the Hard Systems approaches, such as Systems Engineering. The aim was to use systems principles for unstructured, ill-defined problematical situations. The main system concepts that SSM build on are emerging properties, hierarchy, and feedback communication. Through its use the notion of worldview for meaningful actions has evolved as crucial. This paper builds on this notion and include Cognitive Mapping to make plain different worldviews and their relation to meaningful action in a hierarchical approach. Cognitive Mapping also has its roots in Systems Thinking approaches. Its origins in psychology and have been included in Operational Research applications with the aim of mapping and representing how a person thinks about a particular situation, issue or problem.

The paper discusses the features of Soft Systems Methodology and Cognitive Mapping including the interrelation. The combination of these approaches is demonstrated in a case which investigates the complexity of compulsory school teachers’ use of digital technologies in their everyday practice. The research followed a focused ethnographic approach, based on observations and interviews, which allowed the researcher to collect rich empirical data that related to various stakeholder perspectives. These perspectives affect the everyday practice of the school teachers and their possibilities to combine use of digital technology in education and own teaching philosophy.

Through the combination of Cognitive Mapping and one of the SSM modelling techniques we demonstrate an approach that bridges the richness of the real-world situation and the analytical phase of SSM. This approach advanced the understanding of underlying factors that contribute to the complexity of this particular situation and enabled insights which, if transferred to appropriate actions, may lead to an improved situation for involved stakeholders.

Tuesday July 11, 2017 17:30 - 18:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria
 
Wednesday, July 12
 

14:00

3155 Systematic Thinking in Science Education
In the past, whether within kingdom, empire, colony, or republic, young Koreans had to remain focused on passing tests, even in the midst of the war or the collapse of schools and the emergence of private education in the Joseon Dynasty period (1392-1910). Because private tutoring has been a major factor in Korean education for 650 years now, it can be seen as a major influence on the weak development of an integrated education experience in Korea. However, integrated education strengthening basic science education, linking liberal arts and natural sciences, and developing skills in problem solving rather than rote memorization will be necessary for successful participation in the impending Fourth Industrial Revolution.

South Korea's science education is caught in a web of paradoxes. Basic science education is weak, but memorization education for the university entrance examination is the best in the world. Students display a low level of creative thinking compared to advanced countries, but their academic achievement is very high. Koreans have been content to remain in the mindset of their proverb, “‘It is the fastest thing to be late.” Yet college students do not seem content to wait, given their tendency to break away from their majors. Although educational policies and curricula are constantly in flux, why have these patterns emerged, and how can they be changed?

This study examines the relevance and goals of science education through the perspective of recent work in brain science. Specifically, we will examine the relationship between creativity and the biology of the brain, in particular the division between the left and right brains. Brain research focused on cognitive function differentiation has strongly indicated that cooperation between the left and right brains is essential for increasing the ability for creative thinking. Yet the focus on memorization in Korean education can result in relatively weak left brain development, which can shortchange left brain functions including abilities to learn and apply mathematics, language expression, logical reasoning, and rational thinking and criticism.

In summary, although both the left and right brains share roles in creative thinking, Korea's entrance examination does not fully utilize the brain’s differentiated cognitive functions. We need a balanced basic science education with the long-term goal of effective left and right brain development, not the short-term goal of admission to a good college.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:00 - 14:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

14:30

3177 Assessment of Systems Thinking and Systems Analysis Skills in Higher Education: the Case of a Sustainable Resource Management Program
System thinking and system analysis are important skills in solving problems in our complex world. Research from the last two decades showed that students of all domains of sciences are not well prepared to understand correctly the dynamic behaviour of even very simple systems. This phenomenon can be tested and evaluated with help of so-called bathtub tasks that represent simple stock and flow relationships of simple systems. Many studies identified a surprisingly poor performance on different levels of education and even on the level of domain experts. This raises the question if sufficient education in system science will result in better performance to solve complex system problems. Since, 2001, the School of Forest Science and Resource Management of the Technische Universität München offers the International Master of Science (MSc.) Program in Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) which attracts students from all over the world. The SRM Programme includes classes in systems theory and systems analysis in order to improve students’ ability to understand and solve complex problems in interrelated systems that are commonly subject of resource management activities. At the beginning of the system theory class students are invited to participate in an assessment that includes a questionnaire and solving system dynamics tasks (bathtub tasks). The questionnaire asks about their personal and educational background, previous experiences in system sciences and their opinion about own skills and the relevance of system thinking in their career. The bathtub tasks are slightly modified applications of the original bathtub tasks so that results can be compared with other existing studies. The presentation will show some selected results and discuss some experiences from these activities. Until now, poor performances of master students still persist. Only very few students choose to focus more on system thinking and systems analysis skills in their further study programme. However, presumably other scientific methods and approaches are much more accepted and appreciated in conventional academic educational systems than systems thinking and system analysis. It is recommended to increase the presents and relevance of courses on system thinking and system analysis into contemporary academic education.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 14:30 - 15:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

15:00

3159 A Study on the Career Choice of Late Adolescents in Republic of Korea
The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the career choices of Korean youths in late adolescence. The data for this study came from the youth panel (YP2007) of the Korea Employment Information Office. SPSS (WIN) 21.0 was used for the analysis of data. Binary logistic regression analysis identified variables influencing career choice, and causality was examined. Among the respondents, 36.1% had career choices and 63.9% did not. In order to verify the research hypothesis, career development, negative self-esteem, job level, positive self-esteem, job level, daily stress (current), stress during daily life (past 3 years), mother's final educational background, the household's total earning income, participation in career guidance and counseling, and 14-year-old residence location served as independent variables. Analysis of the data established that career development and daily life stress (current) affected results negatively. Positive self - esteem and job level, daily life stress (past 3 years), career guidance and counseling participation, The fact that residents of Seoul, Busan and Jeonbuk proved to have a static effect.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 15:00 - 15:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:00

3076 The Provide-Pickup Paradigm: The Cornerstone in a General Systems Framework for Agency and Governance in Social Systems
In spite of significant advances in technology in today’s world, our large social systems—workplaces, schools, and more—are marked by increasing social decline. Organization practices typically have conflicting approaches of two camps—top-down directive versus bottom-up participatory. A new unifying paradigm is needed. The aim of this paper is to uncover, understand, unify and clarify the laws of human social systems, as we have done with the laws of material and mechanical systems. Illustrations, examples, and metaphors serve the goal of being accessible to a wide audience from a variety of disciplines, academic and lay. The development of the paper is a narrative path analysis. The path begins with large social system outcomes as the unit of focus, links it with general systems theory—Boulding’s nine-level typology of system complexity and skeleton of science —then adds specifics from a wider knowledge base drawing key concepts, literature, and evidence from instruction, management, control systems engineering, psychology, adult learning theory, plus examples from large urban schools and workplaces. The root causes of organization learning and behaviour are located within the individual system member (individual as unit of focus), and a great shift becomes evident. Namely, in mechanical systems, behavior is determined by exteriorly prescribed criteria, controlled by outside forces, including a leader, engineer or scientist. In human systems, behavior is determined by interiorly prescribed criteria, inside each learner or worker. The narrative path then ascends toward the large social system, identifying new corresponding concepts, principles and practices—from the individual system member as unit of focus, to the pair, to the small social system, and then the large or multisite social system. At the level of the individual, the CAP (cognitive, affective, psychomotor) principle is identified, that is: every system member, leader and worker, learns and performs according to his/her own willingness (affective) and ability (cognitive and psychomotor). Updated theory, at the pair level of focus, is that agency of organization learning and behaviour is not in the leader, nor the worker, but in both, thus unifying the conflicting directive and participatory camps. A new PROVIDE-PICKUP paradigm is proposed as the cornerstone of this new framework. The leader’s role is to PROVIDE input, resources and tasks; the learner/worker role is PICKUP of input, each at his/her own rate. TPO Theory (Things, People, Outcomes) is offered for predictability, stating that: In ineffective social systems, decision makers select, design, arrange, distribute, and provide their THINGS (input, resources, and tasks) without regard for their PEOPLE’S needs, abilities, perceptions, choices, and learning rates, resulting in ever-increasing negative OUTCOMES. In contrast: In effective social systems, decision makers select, design, arrange, display, distribute, and provide their THINGS explicitly to allow their PEOPLE to pick up and work according to interiorly prescribed needs and goals, abilities, perceptions, and choices, each at his or her own pace, resulting in increasingly positive OUTCOMES. Back at the level of the large social system as the unit of focus, important input is beyond the pickup range of individuals—that is beyond their [1] awareness and understanding (cognitive span), [2] concern and care (affective span), and [3] physical control (psychomotor span). The concept of span-of-control in management theory is supplemented or replaced by span-of-pickup. User-designed ideal-based automated social control systems are proposed to allow organizations and system members to flourish. Finally, the rICE methodology proposes three necessary sufficient conditions for social system designers and management to consider: organization inputs and processes are most effective when they are inclusive, continuing, and emancipatory (ICE). Further, specifics of these conditions are relative (r) to each group of users.


Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:00 - 16:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

16:30

3179 Pattern Literacy in Support of Systems Literacy: Learning to Find the Patterns and Create the Models That Represent Systems in Words and Pictures
This session, part of the Designing Educational Systems SIG, follows up on Peter Tuddenham’s work on Systems Literacy, and on Helene Finidori’s inquiry on the role of patterns and pattern languages in bridging the fragmentation of systemic knowledge and approaches, and learning about systems. The purpose of this work is to co-explore the connection between systems knowledge representation, its embodiment and the systemic phenomena we wish to learn how to make sense of and to anticipate, using patterns as boundary objects and connectors.

At the ISSS Annual Meeting and Conference in Boulder in 2016 during a plenary session on Systems Literacy that referenced his previous work on Ocean Literacy, the presenter Peter Tuddenham asked the participants to take a 4x6 card and to either 1. Draw a System and or 2. Draw symbols to represent essential principles or big ideas (of Systems). A total of 34 Cards were handed in at the end of the plenary. The 4x6 cards were a blank space upon which different interpretations of the question were made explicit. The authors of this paper have reviewed the submitted cards and examined them for patterns and also to develop categories of responses.

This session will present the results. The implications for the representation of “Systems Literacy” will be explored, both in terms of words, and also in terms of symbols and drawings. In the light of the above, we will examine the question of deriving and formulating shared cross cutting patterns.

The process itself will be examined as a way to create a continuous development of “Systems Literacy” in complement of the quest for a General Systems Theory.

In particular, we will examine the critical role of patterns and pattern languages in embodied cognition, and we will look into how the development of a pattern literacy can reveal essential in support of systems literacy. The ultimate goal is to reflect upon how the capacity for humans to discover, record, retrieve, embody, use or design of systemic patterns can be enhanced.

A workshop session will be connected to the paper presentation. Before this session starts participants will be asked the same questions and asked to complete 4x6 cards. Their responses will be compared and contrasted with the 2016 results.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 16:30 - 17:00
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:00

3160 Modes of Analogy 'What Human Cognitive Abilities Capture Structures from the World?'
Every new things and ideas involve any inventions inside. If people attempts to elucidate those creative abilities to make them being enable, there would be one question that people could come up with. “What human cognitive abilities capture as structures from the world?” Structualisme gave an answer to this problem through Metonymy and Metaphor. Recently those questions are relocated in analogies. However those solutions have not been reached out to concise suggestions to apply analogies to several fields in practical way due to be unclear and uncomfortable to utilize them.

Analogies are generally described in these three; proportional analogies, predictive analogies and analogical problem solving in existing research on analogies. These classifications are fit to comparing results which are available to observe from outside as data, but not good enough for analogies generation processes which are ways to know human cognitive effect. By current general cognitive processes of analogies, it begins with source domain and target domain to get analogy. Then there are key effects in middle of analogies processes; retrieval, mapping and transfer. In order to make the capacity for putting analogies to practical use, it should be considered to refine the works on some key elements on cognitive processes such like memories, abstraction and transfer. To those problems, this study has been approached to make an addition to types of memory by Larry Squire with ‘memory of image’ as the third memory. Therefore, in this study it is considered that most of metaphors are utilized to understand things to make them outstanding, and metonymy refers to describe things through part-whole relation. In addition, it is concerned that synecdoche based on concept hierarchy is also a class metonymy. It attempts to formulate analogies for analogies research by categorizing analogies as working modes to find out relations. Considering these points, this paper provides 5 types of analogies modes in the categories of metonymical and metaphorical at first, then 3 types of analogies modes which could be located in new categories between metonymy and metaphor to give an answer to “What human cognitive abilities capture as structures from the world?”

The previous study of analogies generation processes in human cognitive science has been adopted in this study to make processes more clear. In evaluating modes of analogy, ‘transfer’ which is a key element on analogies processes should be also refined. For this problem, this paper gives an attention to what things make relations on each domains; source and target. Then this paper gives two classifications to show features of relations between source and Target domains. Also, this paper provides one more kind of classification to know features from modes of analogy. According to features of existing analogies, modes of analogy could be divided in case-based analogies and no case-based analogies. Through these framings, this study found that some modes of analogy could be considered that they displays more creativity on the analogies generation processes than other modes of analogy.

As a result of this achievement, this study found one unique way to capture structures by human cognitive besides metonymical and metaphorical ways. It shows relations even there is no common axis to link between things. Some part of this field were mentioned in philosophy as ‘strength’. It means human cognitive captures structures in infinity, and this is before representations. This field will be discussed in future work.

Wednesday July 12, 2017 17:00 - 17:30
3rd Floor, Room SR 121, Institut für Computertechnik,TU Wien Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien, Austria

17:30